Some of these Hindu temples that were partially destroyed during the retaliation of Babri Masjid have since remained that way. In Nagara style, the mandapas are to be decorated with shikhara. The ground-breaking ceremony of the laying of foundation stone of the Ram Temple in Ayodhya will take place today. . Finally, it was in the year 2019 when the Supreme Court gave its final verdict on the Ayodhya Ram Mandir dispute case and entrusted the site exclusively to Hindus and alternately offering the Sunni Waqf Board with 5 Acres of land at a different location for the purpose of building a mosque. While some openly celebrated it, others worded their statements carefully. The widespread significance of the Ram Mandir for Hindu devotees was witnessed when the news of Indian in the US celebrating the event came in. The Ramayana states that the location of Rama's birthplace is on the banks of the Sarayu river in a city called "Ayodhya". AYODHYA: Exactly a month after the Ram Mandir trust was set up by the Centre, a bank account was formally opened in the name of Sri Ram Janmabhoomi Teertha … , Larsen & Toubro offered to oversee the design and construction of the temple free of cost and is the contractor of the project.  Kameshwar Chaupal (a Dalit leader from Bihar) became one of the first people to lay the stone. The invitation list for the Bhoomi Poojan exclusively prepared by the Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra trust after discussions with BJP invited several guests inclusive of the veterans such as L K Advani, lawyer K Parasaran, Murli Manohar Joshi and other dignitaries.  The temple will be 235 feet wide, 360 feet long and 161 feet high. 1,100 Crores.  The building will have a total of 366 columns. A violent dispute arose in the 1850s. , The Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra trust began the first phase of construction of the Ram Temple in March 2020.  Yogi Adityanath, Mohan Bhagwat, Nritya Gopal Das and Narendra Modi gave speeches. , God temple being built on Ram Janmabhoomi site, Prime Minister Narendra Modi at the foundation stone laying ceremony of Ram Temple with Proposed Architecture Design of Ram Temple in background, Reactions to the ground-breaking ceremony, 2019 Supreme Court verdict on Ayodhya dispute, revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, Conversion of mosques into non-Islamic places of worship, "Chandrakant Sompura, the man who designed a Ram temple for Ayodhya", "Ayodhya's Ram Temple Will Be 161-Foot Tall, An Increase Of 20 Feet", "Land levelling for Ayodhya Ram temple soon, says mandir trust after video conference", "Ram temple to cost Rs 1100 crore Trust News Today | Chennai NYOOOZ", "200 Indians killed in riots following mosque destruction", "India's Narendra Modi Broke Ground on a Controversial Temple of Ram. Construction of Ram Mandir at Ayodhya.  On 25 March 2020, Ram's idol was moved to a temporary location in the presence of Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath. Today is a day of equal significance as it marks the return of Ram’s birthplace in Ayodhya to the faithful.” “Fremont Hindu Temple, the oldest temple of California has unique involvement and contribution in the pursuit of Ram Mandir in Ayodhya,” said Govind Pasumarthi, Religious Chair of the temple. This closure was followed by several campaigns and conflicts to build Ram Mandir and this further led to a series of court battles took place and it was in the year 2010 when the High court decision divided the site between Hindus and Muslims. The foundation stone laying ceremony marked its beginning with honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi laying 5 silver bricks at the Ram Mandir construction site.  Mohan Bhagwat also thanked L. K. Advani for his contributions to the movement to get the temple built. In a press conference on Wednesday (December 16), Rai also revealed the details about the … The Ayodhya Ram Mandir Bhoomi Pujan or Groundbreaking Ceremony on August 5, 2020 at the construction site marks a whole new era of Sanatana Dharma.  Soil was also sent from various Hindu temples, Gurudwaras and Jain Temples across the nation to bless the upcoming temple.  In front of the deity, Modi performed a dandvat pranam/ sashtang pranam, lying completely prone on the ground with hands outstretched in prayer. The court also ordered the government to give an alternative 5 acres of land in another place to the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board for the purpose of building a mosque as … In the 1980s, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), belonging to the Hindu nationalist family Sangh Parivar, launched a new movement to reclaim the site for Hindus and to erect a temple dedicated to the infant Rama (Ram Lalla) at this spot. The government of Pakistan closed school and offices in a day of protest. It is situated in the close vicinity of Ram Janma Bhumi and the boundary walls of the Amawa Ram Mandir and the Ram Janma Bhumi complex are common to considerable extent.  Following this the ground breaking and foundation stone laying ceremony of Ram Mandir took place. , On 5 August, Prime Minister Modi first offered prayers at Hanumangarhi temple to seek blessings of Hanuman for the day's events.  Thirty years ago, more than two hundred thousand bricks etched with the 'Sri Rama' in several languages had arrived from various parts of the country; these will be utilized in the foundation. Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India laid the foundation for the Ram Temple to be built in Ayodhya in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh on 5 August 2020. The devotees all set to mark the auspicious occasion of Ram Mandir Bhoomi Pujan where to witness the 3D portraits of the grena Ram Mandir temple in Ayodhya, and Images of Lord Rama along with bhajans and diya lighting ceremony followed by speeches from some of the eminent personalities as well as sweet distribution.  Over the years, various title and legal disputes also took place, such as the passage of the Acquisition of Certain Area at Ayodhya Ordinance, 1993. The committee was constituted at ISKCON temple in presence of saints and social workers. The Ram Mandir Ayodhya dispute is a political, verifiable and socio-religious discussion in India, fixated on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya, situated in Ayodhya District, Uttar Pradesh. The foundation stone laying ceremony marked its beginning with honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi laying 5 … The pageant falls on the 14th ‘Ram Navmi’ in 2020 falls on April 2 and the festival celebrates the birth of Lord Ram. Ram Temple) is a Hindu temple that is to be built in Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, India, at the site of Ram Janmabhoomi, which Hindus believe to be the birthplace of the Hindu god Rama. In accordance with scriptures dedicated to the design of temples dedicated to Vishnu, the sanctum sanctorum will be octagonal. Dispute during British India. , The original design for the Ram temple was prepared in 1988 by the Sompura family of Ahmedabad.  Further violence against Hindu structures in Pakistan was prevented by the Pakistan Army and local Muslim community.. The Ram Mandir News flashing the details of the events happening in the vicinity of Ayodhya left the devotees triumphantly joyful.  The Times of India also reported that post Ram Mandir ground–breaking, Pakistani Hindus fear violence in the same way as what happened in 1992. The grand Ram Mandir, which is coming up at the Ram Janmabhoomi in Ayodhya, will now have five domed ‘mandaps’ and one ‘shikhar’, making the temple a whopping 161 feet high. The Ram Mandir Bhoomi Pujan further invites all the 7000 temples within the 7Km radius of Hanuman Garhi to mark the celebration by lighting of diyas, all the muslim devotees considering Lord Rama as their ancestor are also welcomed to the Bhoomi- Pujan.  However, the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in India followed by the 2020 China–India skirmishes caused a temporary suspension of the construction. It was only after the 2019 Supreme Court verdict on Ayodhya dispute that it was decided the disputed land be handed over to a trust formed by the Indian government for the construction of a Ram temple. The ground-breaking ceremony was performed on 5 August 2020 by Indian prime minister Narendra Modi.  It is designed in the Nagara style of Indian temple architecture. A Ram Navami: India celebrates Lord Ram’s start anniversar ..Devotees carry out aarti at the event of Ramnavmi at Ram Mandir Ayodhya.. Ram Navami is a spring Hindu festival which marks the start of Lord Rama, the 7th avatar of Lord Vishnu at the 9th day of Chaitra Navratri. PM Narendra Modi and CM Yogi Adityanath and other dignitaries unveiling the plaque to lay the foundation stone of Ram Janmabhoomi Mandir, Orthodox priests and religious leaders complained that the ceremony did not follow proper ritual procedures, pointing out, among others, that 5 August was not a ritually auspicious date and that the function did not include a havan.  A model of the proposed temple was showcased during the Prayag Kumbh Mela in 2019. The invite sent to around 150 people for the Ayodhya Ram Temple Bhoomi Pujan or groundbreaking ceremony for the Ram Mandir construction had the picture of Ramlalla and four names onto it. , Ram Lalla Virajman, the infant form of Rama, an avatar of Vishnu, is the presiding deity of the temple. The trust was eventually formed under the name Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra. According to this theory, the Mughals demolished a Hindu shrine that marked the spot, and construct The Union Cabinet has given its nod to set up a trust for the construction of a Ram Temple in Ayodhya, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced in Lok Sabha on Wednesday. Among the many was Sharada Peeth located in Pakistan.  Soon after the ground-breaking ceremony, residents of Ayodhya expressed hope in improvements of job opportunities and development of the city, through tourism generated by the temple. main entrance) of the sanctum was laid here. In the 16th century, the Mughals constructed a mosque, the Babri Masjid which is believed to be the site of the Ram Janmabhoomi, the birthplace of Rama. By FP News Service.  Modi also planted a sapling of the Parijat. Ram Janmabhoomi or ram mandir ayodhya is considered to be one of the best and high rated pilgrimage centers for Hindus in India. Ram Mandir Construction Date. Five acres of land was allocated for the mosque elsewhere in the city.  Temples in United States, Canada and Caribbean Islands held a virtual service to celebrate the occasion. He was assisted by his two sons Nikhil Sompura and Ashish Sompura, who are also architects. Ram Mandir Bhoomi Pujan. The tallest Shikhara will be that above the Garbhagriha. , The temple construction officially started again after a Bhoomi Poojan ceremony on 5 August 2020.  He was represented by Triloki Nath Pandey, a senior VHP leader who was considered as Ram Lalla's next 'human' friend. Ram Janmabhoomi is the name given to the site that is believed to be the birthplace of Rama, the seventh avatar of the Hindu deity Vishnu.  Hindu temples in Bangladesh were also attacked. Chandrakant Sompura, 77, had started work on the temple to Ram Lalla in Ayodhya 30 years ago, after he first visited the site with then Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) president Ashok Singhal. On 5 February 2020, it was announced in the Parliament that the Narendra Modi government had accepted a scheme to construct the temple.  Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, attendees at the temple were limited to 175.. In November 1989, the VHP laid the foundations of a temple on land adjacent to the disputed mosque.  Traditional techniques will be used to create the shrine while at the same time it will be made sure that the shrine will be strong enough to sustain natural calamities such as earthquakes.  Rama's image were shown at Times Square. The Supreme Court of India ordered the disputed land to be handed over to a trust to build the Ram Janmabhoomi temple. The columns will have 16 idols each to include the incarnations of Shiva, the Dashavataras, the chausath joginis, and the 12 incarnations of the goddess Saraswati. Industrialist Ghanshyamdas Birla asked him if he would take up the Ram Mandir … Here's Why It Matters", "As a reaction to Babri Masjid demolition, What had happened in Pakistan and Bangladesh on 6 December, 1992", "How the Babri Masjid Demolition Upended Tenuous Inter-Religious Ties in Pakistan", "Memories of Babri Mosque demolition haunt Pakistani Hindus", "I found pillar bases back in mid-seventies: Prof Lal", "Proof of temple found at Ayodhya: ASI report", "Ram Mandir existed before Babri mosque in Ayodhya: Archaeologist KK Muhammed", "Grand Ram temple in Ayodhya before 2022", "280-feet wide, 300-feet long and 161-feet tall: Ayodhya Ram temple complex to be world's third-largest Hindu shrine", "Ayodhya Case Verdict: Who is Ram Lalla Virajman, the 'Divine Infant' Given the Possession of Disputed Ayodhya Land", "अयोध्या: 5 अगस्त को इस टेलर का सिला पोशाक पहनेंगे रामलला", "What the idol of Ram Lalla will don for the Ayodhya temple 'bhoomi pujan' - Divine Couture", "Somnath, Akshardham & now Ram Mandir – Gujarat family designing temples for 15 generations", "Meet the Sompuras, master architects who are building the Ram Temple in Ayodhya", "Ayodhya Ram Mandir construction to begin in April this year: Trustee", "Ram Mandir design: Nagara style of architecture for Ayodhya's Ram temple", "1st phase of Ram temple construction begins in Ayodhya", "Ram Mandir Construction: राम मंदिर निर्मितीच्या पहिल्या टप्प्यातील काम सुरू", "Ram Mandir plans continue during COVID-19 lockdown, temple trust releases its official Logo", "COVID-19: लॉकडाउन खत्म होते ही अयोध्या में शुरू होगा भव्य राम मंदिर निर्माण", "Shivling, carvings on sandstone found at Ram Janmabhoomi site: Temple trust", "U.P. Also visible are Mohan Bhagwat and Anandiben Patel. Mr Modi is the first Prime Minister to visit the Ram … Ujjain: VHP forms panel to collect donations for Ram Mandir at Ayodhya. This decision of the high-court however was appealed by the litigants of both the communities. Amawa Ram Mandir is one of the most important temples of Ayodhya. Ayodhya Ram Mandir News: Prime Minister Narendra Modi did the bhumi pujan of Ram Mandir today in Ayodhya. Ram Mandir (transl. , Ram Lalla was a litigant in the court case over the disputed site since 1989, being considered a "juristic person" by the law. Jagdish Sewhani- the President of the American India Public Affairs Committee and Prominent community leader revealed that the historic event is all set to be celebrated at Times Squarein New York.  He stated, "the call of Jai Siya Ram is resonating not only in the city of Lord Ram but throughout the world today" and that "Ram Mandir will become the modern symbol of our traditions". The fusing of the stone blocks will require ten thousand copper plates. A 1978 and 2003 archaeological excavation by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) found evidence indicating that Hindu temple remains had existed on the site. Shri Ram Janmbhoomi Teerth Kshetra released some photos of … , The main structure of the temple will be built on a raised platform and will have three storeys. The Ram Mandir News flashing the details of the events happening in the vicinity of Ayodhya left the devotees triumphantly joyful. According to the Many historical scripts, the land on which the Babri mosque was built in 1528 is the 'Ram Janmabhoomi' (birthplace of the god-king Rama). The dispute between Ayodhya Ram Mandir and Babri Mosque has now lasted for a long time. Chief Minister Adityanath shifts Ram idol amid lockdown", "VHP to organise 'Vijay Mahamantra Jaap Anushthan, "L&T to oversee the construction of Ram temple: Vishwa Hindu Parishad", "L&T ready to construct Ram temple in Ayodhya for free, say VHP leaders", "Ayodhya Ram Temple construction: L & T reaches out to IIT-M for expert help on design, concrete", "Ram temple: CBRI and IIT-Madras tests Janmabhoomi soil", "Construction of Ram Mandir in Ayodhya begins", "Ram temple bhumi pujan: Sangam soil, water to be taken to Ayodhya; proceedings to be telecast live", "Water, soil from Kodagu sent to Ayodhya", "Sacred Soil of Kamakhya Temple taken for Construction of Ram Mandir", "VHP sends soil from gurdwara, Valmiki temple to Ayodhya", "Soil from Sharda Peeth in Kashmir to be used in Ram Mandir foundation in Ayodhya", "Soil from 11 places in Delhi sent for Ayodhya Ram Temple Bhoomika pujan", "Char Dham soil and Ganga water to be sent to Ayodhya for Ram Temple Bhumi Pujan", "Temples in North America to hold virtual prayer to celebrate Ayodhya Ram Temple's foundation laying ceremony", "Lord Ram's images to be displayed in Times Square to celebrate August 5 Ayodhya Temple groundbreaking ceremony", "Largest digital display of Lord Ram shines in New York's Times Square", "UP: On the threshold of change, Ayodhya braces for transition", "Muslim devotees of Lord Ram gear up to celebrate temple 'bhoomi pujan' in Ayodhya", "After bhoomi poojan at Ayodhya, RSS' Mohan Bhagwat says we have fulfilled our resolve", "PM Modi gifted silver crown, headgear at Ayodhya's Hanuman Garhi temple", "From Laos to Lanka, Ram is everywhere: PM Modi in Ayodhya", "Long wait ends today: PM chants 'Jai Siya Ram' in Ayodhya", "With Jai Siya Ram, PM Modi departs from Jai Shri Ram chant at bhoomi pujan", "Ram Mandir Will Be A Modern Symbol Of Our Traditions: PM Modi", "At Ayodhya Ram temple event, PM Modi reiterates mantra to fight coronavirus", "Watch: PM Narendra Modi Plants Parijat Sapling At Ram Temple", "Ram Mandir Bhoomi Pujan : राम लला को साष्टांग प्रणाम किया प्रधानमंत्री मोदी ने, जानें क्या है इसका महत्व", "At Ayodhya Bhoomi Pujan, Modi Became All-in-One; Proper Rituals Not Followed, Allege Pundits", "Pakistan criticises India for starting construction of Ram temple in Ayodhya", "Pakistani Hindu fears more attacks after Ram Mandir foundation in Ayodhya", "Ram Mandir: Which Secular Leaders Hailed Bhoomi Pujan & Who Didn't", "Ayodhya Ram Mandir Ceremony: Leaders Hope Development Would Pave Way For Harmony", "Ram Mandir is more than an emotive issue for Ayodhya's youth — it means new opportunities", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ram_Mandir,_Ayodhya&oldid=998707555, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 17:34. Ram Mandir in Ayodhya will be built with donation of public and not with government money - Here's how you can donate. , On the occasion of the Bhoomi-Pooja, soil and holy-water from several religious places across India, Triveni Sangam of rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Saraswati at Prayagraj, Kaveri river at Talakaveri, Kamakhya Temple in Assam and many others, were collected. The cost of the temple construction is estimated to be around Rs. , The demolition resulted in several months of intercommunal rioting between India's Hindu and Muslim communities, causing the death of at least 2,000 people, and triggering riots all over the Indian subcontinent.  The temple will be built in 10 acres and 57 acres of land will be developed into a complex with a prayer hall, "a Ramkatha Kunj (lecture hall), a Vaidik Pathshala (educational facility), a Sant Niwas (saints' residence) and a Yatri Niwas (hostel for visitors)" and other facilities like a museum and a cafeteria. , The construction work will be accomplished with 600 thousand cubic feet of sandstone Bansi mountain stones from Rajasthan.  Many expressed hope in furthering the country's progress by following the ideals of Ram.  All 7,000 temples in a 7 km radius of Hanumangarhi were also asked to join in the celebrations by lighting diyas. There will be no use of iron in the construction of the temple.  In preparation for its construction, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad organised a 'Vijay Mahamantra Jaap Anushthan', in which individuals would gather at different places to chant the Vijay Mahamantra – Shri Ram, Jai Ram, Jai Jai Ram, on 6 April 2020. A movement was launched in 1984 by the Vishwa Hindu Parishad party to reclaim the Babri mosque site for a Rama temple. Separate areas for Hindus and muslims were set up in the region during British rule. , Various Indian political leaders hailed the ground-breaking ceremony. The Ram Mandir construction at Ayodhya is all set to start after the ground-breaking ceremony on August 5, 2020 with PM Narendra Modi as the chief guest.  The chief architect of the temple is Chandrakant Sompura.  In this respect, writer Arundhati Roy pointed out that the chosen date marked one year since the revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, arguing that the decision to schedule the ceremony for 5 August, an inauspicious date with no significance in the Hindu calendar, symbolized the conclusion of a period "in which India under Modi has formally declared itself a Hindu Nation, the dawning of a new era. The cost of the temple construction is estimated to be around Rs. Ayodhya after getting Independence to India. In the judgment, the three judges of the Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2.77 acres (1.12 ha) of Ayodhya land be divided into three parts, with one third going to the Ram Lalla or Infant Rama represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha, one third going to the Uttar Pradesh Sunni Central Waqf Board, and the remaining third going to Nirmohi Akhara, a Hindu religious denomination.  During ground-leveling and excavation of the construction site a Shivaling, pillars and broken idols were found. You can also upload and share your favorite Ram Mandir Ayodhya wallpapers. Ram Janmabhoomi is a huge complex with the remains of an old temple or mandir . Some Hindus claim that the exact site of Rama's birthplace is where the Babri Masjid once stood in the present-day Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh. , A new design, with some changes from the original, was prepared by the Sompuras in 2020, in accordance with vastu shastra and the shilpa shastras. The ground-breaking ceremony followed by the vedic rituals gathered the soil and holy water from several places across the country like Gnaga, Yamuna, Triveni Sangam, Kaveri, TalaKaveri, Saraswati at Prayagraj, Kamakhya Temple in Madras etc. Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra Trust has said that it …  Muslims devotees in Ayodhya who consider Rama as their ancestor also looked forward to the bhoomi-puja.  Narendra Modi also paid his respects to the many who had made sacrifices for the Ram temple. This was said to ensure "victory over hurdles" in the construction of the temple. In 1992, a right-wing Hindu nationalist rally progressed into a riot, leading to the demolition of the Babri mosque. The Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP) will start the collection of funds for the Ram Temple at Ayodhya on January 15 and …  The temple construction will be undertaken by Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra. Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 5 August laid the foundation for the Ram Temple to be built in Ayodhya, as per Supreme Court directives last year. Rama, considered an incarnation of god Vishnu, is a widely worshiped Hindu deity. The ground-breaking ceremony was performed on 5 August 2020 by Indian prime minister Narendra Modi. In a mega event in Ayodhya, the PM along … They built several Vishnu temples in Ayodhya, five of which survived till the end of Aurangzeb’s control. The singhdwar (transl. However, post independence, the ensuing controversy over the matter resulted in closing of the site to both the communities.  Archeologist KK Muhammad accused several historians of undermining the findings.  Ram Lalla's dress is stitched by tailors Bhagwat Prasad and Shankar Lal; Shankar Lal is a fourth generation tailor to Rama's idol. In the 1980s, the VHP collected funds and bricks with "Shree Ram" written on them. Start of Ayodhya (Ram Mandir) In the 11th century, the Gahadavala dynasty came to power in the region and promoted Vaishnavism. Once complete, the temple complex will be the world's third largest Hindu shrine. More than 230 years after the construction of Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, … The pre-construction work will commence from ‘Makar Sankranti’ in January. In addition these various Hindu Temples, Char Dham- the four pilgrimage locations, Jain Temples, Gurudwaras, across the nation sent soil to bless the upcoming temple of Lord Ram- the Hindu deity. And this temple is considered a holy place where the Lord Ram was born. The final judgement in the Ayodhya dispute was declared by the Supreme Court of India on 9 November 2019. 1,100. Spiritual leaders from all faiths were invited on the occasion. Ram Mandir bhoomi pujan: Photos from Ayodhya Rai also called upon every Rama bhakt (devotee) to come forward enthusiastically and proactively for this "Ram-Kaaj" (cause). Ram Mandir at Ayodhya The core connectivity of Hindus with Lord Rama was partially demolished at the time of Babar Invasion of India.  Central Building Research Institute and Indian Institute of Technology, Madras are assisting in areas such as soil testing, concrete and design. AYODHYA — It is a rainbow of hope and faith outside the sprawling 67 acres of the Ram Janmabhoomi in the temple town of Ayodhya as hundreds of people from different parts of … Ram Mandir The grand temple at Rama Janmabhoomi in Ayodhya will follow the Nagara style of temple architecture, reports TOI. " Among the international community, Pakistan made an official statement through its Pakistan Foreign Office related to the temple. It will have five mandapas in the middle of the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) and the entry — the three mandapas Kudu, Nritya, and Rang; and two mandapas for the Kirtan and Prarthana on the other side. Narendra Modi performing Bhoomi Pujan at the groundbreaking. Tons of awesome Ram Mandir Ayodhya wallpapers to download for free. Later, the Rajiv Gandhi government gave the VHP permission for Shilanyas (the foundation stone ceremony), with the then Home Minister Buta Singh formally conveying the permission to the VHP leader Ashok Singhal.